Army Organization

Army - generally named for state or region, commanded by a General, contained infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers, signalmen, quartermaster, and commissary departments.

Infantry and Artillery

Corps - contained 3 divisions and an artillery reserve battalion, commanded by a Lieutenant General.

Division - 12,000 men, 3 infantry brigades (typical), 1 artillery battalion, commanded by a Major General.


Infantry Brigade - named for a famous or current commander, 4,000 men, 4 regiments (typical), artillery battery, commanded by a Brigadier General, staff normally included an aide, quartermaster officer, commissary officer, ordinance officer, inspector, and clerks.

Infantry Regiment - named by a number and state, 1,000 men, 10 companies, commanded by a Colonel, staff included a Lt Colonel, a Major, Adjutant, Quartermaster, Surgeon (Major), 2 Asst Surgeons, Chaplain, Sergeant Major, Quartermaster Sergeant, Commissary Sergeant, Hospital Steward, 2 principal musicians.

Infantry Company - 100 men formed into 2 platoons, commanded by a Captain, included a 1st Lieutenant, a 2nd Lieutenant, a 1st Sergeant, 4 additional Sergeant's, 8 Corporals, approximately 80 privates, 2 musicians, and a wagonneer.

Infantry Platoon - 50 men formed into 5 squads, commanded by a Lieutenant.

Infantry Squad - 10 men, commanded by a Sergeant or Corporal.


Artillery Regiment - 3 battalions, Artillery regiments virtually never fought as a regiment, rather the battalions were distributed to Corps and Divisions.

Artillery Battalion - 3-5 batteries, commanded by a Lt Colonel or Major, early in the war the battalion was usually split into batteries that were typically assigned to support a brigade. Later in the war, the batteries often were massed and the battalion fought as a unit.

Artillery Battery - 4-6 guns, 100 men, commanded by a Captain, staff included a 1st Sergeant, quartermaster sergeant, privates (teamsters, artificer, blacksmith, farrier, bugler, guidon) an artillery battery typically would have 6 caisson and limbers in reserve and a field forge.

Artillery Section - 2 guns, commanded by a Lieutenant.

Piece - 1 gun and 1 limber wagon, 8 (minimum) men, 12 horses, commanded by a sergeant, 2 corporals (gunner & chief of caisson), privates (cannoneers, drivers, extra men).


Cavalry Corps - 3 divisions commanded by Lieutenant General.

Cavalry Division - 2-5 brigades, commanded by Major General.

Cavalry Brigade - 2-5 regiments, commanded by Brigadier General.

Cavalry Regiment - 3 battalions, Commanded by a Colonel, staff includes a Lt Colonel, Major, Adjutant, Quartermaster, Commissary, Surgeon, Asst Surgeon, Sgt Major, Quartermaster Sergeant, Commissary Sergeant, Saddler Sergeant, farrier, and 2 hospital stewards.

Cavalry Battalions - 4 companies or troops.

Cavalry Squadron - 2 companies or troops

Cavalry Company (troop) - 40-100 men, Commanded by a Captain, includes 2 Lieutenants, a 1st Sergeant, Quartermaster Sergeant, Commissary Sergeant, 2 additional Sergeants, 4 Corporals, 1 Farrier, 1 Blacksmith, and 1 Musicians (bugler)